Solar Pump controllers, as the name suggests, are designed to match the input power conserved by the panels with the output power sent to the pump. It is meant to help the circulating pump harvest more electricity from the converted heat. It is also a safety guard for the systems in order to prevent power surges or overheating of the system. The entire dynamics of the PV solar pump system is to convert solar energy into electricity and the system involves a controller, PV panels and an AC motor. The controller comprises of an inverter, a VFD and an MPPT.
A solar pump functions by having a series of solar panels absorb sunlight and generate a direct current, which is then directed to a phase 3 AC output via VFD. The VFD or Variable Frequency Drive is a controller for the variations in frequency and voltage of the power supply. It determines power running through the motor power should ramp up or ramp down according to the needs of the system. On the other hand, the Maximum Power Point Tracking unit (or MPPT) is inbuilt algorithm that controls the maximum charge extracted from the PV modules. This maximum power voltage is what is called the maximum power point.